Excellent work Cassie! Your page is very well set-out and address all of the criteria in good depth. Slightly more information on the incubation conditions would have been good. Grade = A-

Embryo Development:

Day 1-3: The brain and nervous system begin to form, eyes appear and the heart, tongue and beak begin to form.
Day 4-6: Fully beating heart, legs and wing begin to form.
Day 7-10: Blood starts to circulate, feathers and comb visible
Day 11-14 : Bottom of feet become padded, embryo begins to draw calcium from the eggshell for growing bones and turns heard towards blunt end of egg.
Day 15-18: Scales claws and beak become firm, beak breaks through the inner shell membrane and lungs begin to function.
Day 19-21: Yolk sac enters body, the egg is fully developed and ready to be born.

Egg Fertillilsation:

Chicken eggs are fertilised inside the hen. The hen releases a yolk which is then fertiised by a roosters sperm which is present in the hen. The yolk then makes it way down the reproduction track in the hen. The egg is passed to the magnum where albumin (egg white) is placed around the yolk. It then goes to the Isthmus where the shell membrane is formed. The egg then goes to the uterus where the egg shell is formed and then is released through the vent. It takes twelve days for the egg to be laid.



Eggs are placed in incubators as a substitube for a hen. The incubator is set to a certain temperature so that the eggs can stay warm and hatch. The incubator is set at a temperature of 37-37.8 degrees. If the temperature is set to high the chicken embryo develops very fast and leads to the death of the chickens. If the temperature is too low the incubation time will be longer and most of the chicken embryos will die in the egg shells thats why it is important to maintain the right temperature of the incubator.


Preparing Eggs for sale:

Receival: Refrigerated trucks deliver eggs to grading floors. On arrival the eggs are taken to large temperature and humidity controlled coolrooms where the eggs are kept fresh until they are ready to be packed.
Re-oiling: Washed eggs are sent through a re- oiling station where a micro-fine mist of oil re-coats the clean egg.
Quality Testing: Eggs are tested for egg white height, yolk colour and shell thickness. Sample eggs are broken onto a level surface where albumin is measured with a micrometer. Yolks are checked for size, shape, colour and defects.
Candling: Eggs on the conveyor belt are passed over a strong light, where the operator can can see inside the egg and look for internal defects such as blood spots and shell defects like cracks and dirt spots.
Stamping: Eggs are stamped with a unique code detaling the farm of origin and what day the egg was processed. This allows grading floors to trace eggs to the farm if necessary.
Grading: Eggs are weighed mechanically and sorted into different sizes and are packed.
Packing: Graded eggs are placed into cartons with a best before date. Packed cartons are taking to the packing area by a conveyor belt and are placed into boxes and then put onto to pallets for transport to the storage area. Egsg are kept cool before they are taken to retail outlets.

Layer chicken breeds:



Chicken Parasites

Lice and Mites
  • Describe what they are
  • include a picture of each
  • symptoms of chickens
  • possible treatments

LICE: Lice are parasites of chickens that feed on feathers or shredding skin cells of the chicken.
Symptoms: weight loss, reduced egg yeild, plucking own feathers.
Treatment: Specialist lice powder.

MITES: Mite are parasites that burrow into the chickens skin and and feeds on the chickens blood.
Symptoms: cause anemia, decreased egg laying and damage to skin and feathers.
Treatments: Permithrin and several other good treatments exist. Both the chicken and premises need to be treated.