CHICKEN AND EGG PRODUCTION:

Oustanding page Maddison! You have included great detail in your assignment both in terms of your information and diagrams/pictures. Grade = A+

Embryo Development:21_days_embryo.png
Days 1-3: The brain and head begins to form. Blood vessels begin to appear and the heart begins to form. The tail, wings, beak and legs begin to form.
Day 4-6: The heart begins to beat. The reproductive and internal organs begin to form.
Day 7-9: Some of the feathers around the legs and tail begin to grow. The blood starts to circulate around the body.
Day 10-12: The embryo begins to draw in calcium from the eggshell for growing bones. Scales appear on legs.
Day 13-15: The collar bones come together to form the wish bone. The embryo turns to the blunt end of the egg. The scales, beak and claws become firm.
Day 16-18: The Embryo shifts its head towards the air cell. The beak breaks through the inner shell membrane and the lungs begin to function.
Day 19-21: The yolk sack starts to enter the body cavity. The embryo occupies all of the egg except for the air cell. The egg is fully developed and ready to hatch.
http://chickscope.beckman.uiuc.edu/explore/embryology/
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/birds/info/chicken/egg.shtml and one note.

Egg Fertilization:
Fertilization occurs when the yolk is released into the oviduct where it can be fertilized internally by a roosters sperm. The egg then travels through the various parts of the reproductive system where all parts of the egg such as the shell membrane, albumin and yolk are formed. It takes anywhere from 10 to 12 days for a hen to lay her egg, because it stays in each part of the hens reproductive system for a number of days or hours.

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http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/birds/info/chicken/egg.shtml
external image C0072025-Chicken_embryo_in_an_egg-SPL.jpg









Incubation:
Incubation is artificially providing warmth and moisture to a fertilized chicken egg. A chicken incubator is an artificial way for eggs to develop, grow and hatch. An incubator acts as the eggs replacement mother, providing automatic warmth, air holes and rotation to the eggs.
An incubator percisely controls the temperature, humidity and ventelation rates that are needed to hatch an healthy chick. Incubators have an 85% hatchability rate. The temperature of the incubator should be at 37-39 degrees celcius. These conditions are essential as they provide enough heat to keep the chicken egg warm and enable it to hatch successfully.external image 54ae.jpg
http://www.poultryhub.org/most-popular/incubation/external image Egg-Incubator-Model-Oci-300.jpg
http://www.dominc.net/images/BigImages/54ae.jpg
http://kccatalyst.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Egg-Incubator-.jpg

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Preparing eggs for sale:
Receival: The eggs are collected from the farms and taken by refrigerated trucks to grading floors where they are tested. They are kept in temperature controlled coolrooms. The eggs are then mechanically washed to remove dirt or manure.
Re-oiling: This is where a micro-fine mist coats the egg to keep it clean.
Quality Testing: This is where the eggs are tested for their quality. Some eggs out of each batch will be tested for egg white height, yolk colour and shell thickness. Some eggs are even cracked open so that the albumen and yolk can be observed. If the eggs do not live up to the standards required, then the eggs can be rejected.
Candling: This process involves the eggs passing over a strong light which allows the operator to check inside the egg for blood spots, cracks and other shell defects. If a defect is found then the egg can still be used for processed egg products.
Stamping: Some grading floors stamp their eggs with a unique code so that if necessary the eggs can be traced back to a particular farm.
Grading: This is where eggs are mechanically weighed and sorted into different sizes before packaging. The weights of the eggs are usually marked on the carton.
Packing: This is where the eggs are palced in a carton and a best before date is applied. The packed cartons then travel by a conveyer belt where they are placed into boxes ready for transportation to the supermarkets. Packaged eggs are kept at about 15 degres Celcius.
http://www.farmpride.com.au/farm-to-plate and handout sheet.
external image 517361_70ccef5331c5914169230febaf3a10ec.jpgre_oiling.jpgtesting.jpgcandling.jpgprocessing.jpg

Pictures left -right:(Receival) (Re-oiling) (Quality testing) (Candling) ( Stamping, Grading and Packing)




Layer chicken breeds:

external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSfPom4fnztq0G9QFuSB09ZruhpJB3UE22-6F4uoAJXOGC0niysnolDDMWNsg

Australorp: This chicken is excellent at laying eggs. They lay large eggs that are cream to light brown in colour. The Australorp is a heavy bird and when it is crossed with a White Leghorn it produces 80% of Australia's commercial egg laying stock



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Rhode Island Red: This Chicken lays brown meduim sized eggs. This particular bird is also produced for meat purposes. The chicken is a reddish brown colour with yellow legs.


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White Leghorn: This chicken produces good quality eggs. The eggs layed are white and small-medium in size (usualy the size of ann average egg) due to their small white body.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_chicken_breeds and one note.

Chicken Parasites:

Lice: Lice are tiny insects that live in a chickens feathers and feed on a chickens skin. They can become irritating for chickens and in some cases they can become fatal. Lice feed on the blood,dry skin and on chickens feathers.They can easily spread to the entire flock. Symptoms include a dirty vent area, weight loss, feather loss, scaly skin and a reduced egg yield. To treat lice there are special powders or creams to apply to the chicken. Or treatment can be as simple as making sure that their bedding and food is always clean. Also provide the chickens with a dirt area for them to roll. This may help them to shake the lice off and get rid of them naturally.

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Mites: Mites are parasites that feed on a chickens blood. Mites are commonly found around the wing, leg and breast area. Mites attatch themselves to an area of the chicken that is usually dark such as around the vent area. Mites are hard to spot because they normally come out at night. Symptoms include; a poor amount of egg production and in some cases a chicken refuses to roost. For the treatment of mites there is also a number of different powders/creams that can be applied to a chickens feathers and other affected areas. However it is also very important to make sure that the chicken coop is cleaned regually to avoid passing on other diseases.
http://www.keepingchickens.com/chicken-lice-mites-worms-coccidiosis/

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