Great work Matthew! You have included excellent detail and answered the question very well. Grade = A

Matthew Frick

Embryo Development

Before egg laying:

Division and growth of living cells
Segregation of cells into groups of special function (skin Tissues)
external image embryo_drawing.gif
external image embryo_drawing.gif

Between Laying and Incubation:No growth; stage of inactive embryonic life
During Incubation:First day16 hours - first sign of resemblance to a chick embryo18 hours - appearance of alimentary tract
20 hours - appearance of vertebral column
21 hours - beginning of nervous system
22 hours - beginning of head
24 hours - beginning of eye

Second day25 hours - beginning of heart35 hours - beginning of ear
42 hours - heart beats

Third day
60 hours - beginning of nose62 hours - beginning of legs
64 hours - beginning of wings

Fourth day - beginning of tongue
Fifth day - formation of reproductive organs and differentiation of sexSixth day - beginning of beakEighth day - beginning of feathersTenth day - beginning of hardening of beakThirteenth day - appearance of scales and clawsFourteenth day - embryo gets into position suitable for breaking shellSixteenth day - scales, claws and beak becoming firm and hornySeventeenth day - beak turns toward air cellNineteenth day - yolk sac begins to enter body cavityTwentieth day - yolk sac completely drawn into body cavity; embryo occupies practically all the space within the egg except the air cellTwenty-first day - hatching of chick

Egg Fertilization:
The female chicken fertilizes her egg by mating with a male chicken, using the sperm from the male the female chicken stores the sperm in her oviduct. Once the sperm is stored she then uses the sperm to combine with egg to fertilize it. The sperm can live in the oviduct of the female for week and feeds off eggs from non-fertilized eggs in the female.
The egg takes about 30 minutes for a hen to lay her egg.
external image ChickenLay1.JPG


A incubator is a in-closed apparatus providing a controlled internment to care for baby chicks so they can hatch, it controls temperature and humidity, with that ventilation and egg turning are important as well.
The incubator helps with the embryo develop by the temperature to keep it warm as it would be under the hen, the humidity helps with the embryo develop by using water which then the temperature then turns to steam, then keeps the humidity for the egg.
Temperature in a incubator is 35 to 40.5℃ (95 to 105F), it also can be between 37.8℃(100F) and for hatching 37~37.5℃. These conditions are important for the embryo because they help it hatch such as keep it warm, the embryo has breathing space, turning the egg so that the whole egg is warm and humidity helps with environment for the egg.

external image incurh1.jpgexternal image incub4.gif

Preparing eggs for Sale:

Trucks that are refrigerated pick up the eggs and deliver them from the farm to the factory. On arrival to the factory trays of eggs are taken on trolleys to large humidity and temperate controlled rooms to keep the eggs fresh. They are then picked up by suction heads and placed on conveyor belts that they are washed and cleaned.

The cleaning process removes all oil from the chicken egg such as natural oils that help keep the egg fresh. The grading floor sends the washed eggs through a re-oiling station were the eggs are micro-fine mist sprays the eggs with oil re-coats to clean them.

external image Egg+Oiling-1000984.jpg

Quality Testing:
The eggs are then tested for consumer quality, the egg white, yolk, colour and shell thickness is tested. On arrival on the grading floor, samples from each batch are tested then broken on level surface. Measurement is checked against egg white, yolk is checked for size, colour and defects with random testing ensuring the colour is acceptable.
external image chinaapprove.jpg

Once past quality testing the eggs then move on to candling which is a light that the operator can see through the egg and look for internal defects such as blood spots and shell defects such as cracks and dirt spots. Some grading floors tend to use electronic crack detection.
external image Img0011L.jpg

Grading and packing floors stamp their eggs with unique code detailing their farm of origin and the day the egg was processed. The process allows grading floors to trace their eggs to the farm to the origin if it is necessary.
external image Free+Range+chicken+farm.JPG

Eggs are mechanically weighed and they are sorted into different sizes (called grade) and then packed. These grade sizes vary between egg marketers, which are between three and five major grades, they are generally available.
external image 476791_0105317a105db7a371520bf076adb6d4.jpg

The eggs that are graded are placed into cartons and a 'best before' or 'use by date' are applied onto each egg carton. Once packed the eggs travel by a conveyor belt to the packing area, once here the eggs are placed into boxes and onto pallets.
external image egg-143555_copy1.jpg

Layer Chicken Breeds:
There are many types of chicken layer breeds, but there are three main common breeds such as the Ancona, Minorc and Australorp
Ancona rooster
Ancona rooster

Ancona and Mincorc
The eggs that they produce are medium sized, coloured white.


The eggs that the type of chicken produces are medium size and coloured brownish.

Chicken Parasites:
chickens have and suffer from many parasites such as Lice and Mites.

Lice in chickens are very small that hide under the chickens feathers and go on it's skin. They are seen on chickens as black dots and leave red spots on the chickens once they have been there for a while.
external image Img0036.jpg
Symptoms include a dirty vent area, weight loss and reduced egg yield.

Treatment for killing the lice should be a specialist lice powder for chickens and should be applied to every chicken if it is infected or not, it also should be applied as the instructions say. The lice power should be applied up to 7-10 days allowing that the lice have been killed as lice can live without a bird host for 5 days and reproduce in just 3 weeks.

Mites are very small parasites in chickens that in the dark places in chickens, there are two types the red mite which hides in the chicken coop and the Northern fowl which lives on the chicken.
external image Redmite.jpg
Red blood mite